Formación

Actualización LPI Linux Essentials

El pasado 28 de octubre de 2018 se ha depreciado la versión 1.5 de la certificación LPI Linux Essentials (código de examen 010-500) y se ha publicado la nueva versión 1.6 (código de examen 010-160) la cual actualmente solo está disponible en inglés, alemán, japonés, y a lo largo de 2019 se publicará en los idiomas italiano, español, francés, portugués (brasileño), holandés, chino (simplificado), chino (tradicional).

No obstante la versión 1.5 seguirá estando disponible hasta el 1 de julio 2019 en los siguientes idiomas inglés, alemán y en portugués (brasileño), italiano, español (moderno), chino (simplificado), chino (tradicional) para los exámenes realizados en papel por lo que aquellos que quieran realizar este examen en español tendran que [1] buscar algún sitio donde realizar el examen de forma presencial, o [2] esperarse 2019 para que se publiquen los nuevos exámenes en español (lo cual entiendo que se producirá en el primer trimestre).

Para aquellas personas que estén pensando en prepararse esta certificación dejo a continuación una comparativa que estoy realizando entre los objetivos de las dos versiones:

v1.5 v1.6

Topic 1: The Linux Community and a Career in Open Source (weight: 7)

Topic 1: The Linux Community and a Career in Open Source

1.1 Linux Evolution and Popular Operating Systems

Weight 2
Description Knowledge of Linux development and major distributions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Open Source Philosophy
  • Distributions
  • Embedded Systems

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Android
  • Debian, Ubuntu (LTS)
  • CentOS, openSUSE, Red Hat
  • Linux Mint, Scientific Linux

1.1 Linux Evolution and Popular Operating Systems (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Knowledge of Linux development and major distributions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Distributions
  • Embedded Systems
  • Linux in the Cloud

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Debian, Ubuntu (LTS)
  • CentOS, openSUSE, Red Hat, SUSE
  • Linux Mint, Scientific Linux
  • Raspberry Pi, Raspbian
  • Android

1.2 Major Open Source Applications

Weight 2
Description Awareness of major applications as well as their uses and development.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Desktop Applications
  • Server Applications
  • Development Languages
  • Package Management Tools and repositories

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice, Thunderbird, Firefox, GIMP
  • Apache HTTPD, NGINX, MySQL, NFS, Samba
  • C, Java, Perl, shell, Python, PHP
  • dpkg, apt-get, rpm, yum

1.2 Major Open Source Applications (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Awareness of major applications as well as their uses and development.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Desktop applications
  • Server applications
  • Development languages
  • Package management tools and repositories

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice, Thunderbird, Firefox, GIMP
  • Nextcloud, ownCloud
  • Apache HTTPD, NGINX, MariaDB, MySQL, NFS, Samba
  • C, Java, JavaScript, Perl, shell, Python, PHP
  • dpkg, apt-get, rpm, yum

1.3 Understanding Open Source Software and Licensing

Weight 1
Description Open communities and licensing Open Source Software for business.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Licensing
  • Free Software Foundation (FSF), Open Source Initiative (OSI)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • GPL, BSD, Creative Commons
  • Free Software, Open Source Software, FOSS, FLOSS
  • Open Source business models

1.3 Open Source Software and Licensing (weight: 1)

Weight 1
Description Open communities and licensing Open Source Software for business.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Open source philosophy
  • Open source licensing
  • Free Software Foundation (FSF), Open Source Initiative (OSI)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Copyleft, Permissive
  • GPL, BSD, Creative Commons
  • Free Software, Open Source Software, FOSS, FLOSS
  • Open source business models

1.4 ICT Skills and Working in Linux

Weight 2
Description Basic Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills and working in Linux.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Desktop Skills
  • Getting to the Command Line
  • Industry uses of Linux, Cloud Computing and Virtualization

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Using a browser, privacy concerns, configuration options, searching the web and saving content
  • Terminal and Console
  • Password issues
  • Privacy issues and tools
  • Use of common open source applications in presentations and projects

1.4 ICT Skills and Working in Linux (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Basic Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills and working in Linux.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Desktop skills
  • Getting to the command line
  • Industry uses of Linux, cloud computing and virtualization

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Using a browser, privacy concerns, configuration options, searching the web and saving content
  • Terminal and console
  • Password issues
  • Privacy issues and tools
  • Use of common open source applications in presentations and projects

Topic 2: Finding Your Way on a Linux System (weight: 9)

Topic 2: Finding Your Way on a Linux System

2.1 Command Line Basics

Weight 3
Description Basics of using the Linux command line.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic shell
  • Command line syntax
  • Variables
  • Globbing
  • Quoting

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Bash
  • echo
  • history
  • PATH env variable
  • export
  • type

2.1 Command Line Basics (weight: 3)

Weight 3
Description Basics of using the Linux command line.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic shell
  • Command line syntax
  • Variables
  • Quoting

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Bash
  • echo
  • history
  • PATH environment variable
  • export
  • type

2.2 Using the Command Line to Get Help

Weight 2
Description Running help commands and navigation of the various help systems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Man
  • Info

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • man
  • info
  • Man pages
  • /usr/share/doc/
  • locate

2.2 Using the Command Line to Get Help (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Running help commands and navigation of the various help systems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Man pages
  • Info pages

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • man
  • info
  • /usr/share/doc/
  • locate

2.3 Using Directories and Listing Files

Weight 2
Description Navigation of home and system directories and listing files in various locations.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files, directories
  • Hidden files and directories
  • Home
  • Absolute and relative paths

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Common options for ls
  • Recursive listings
  • cd
  • . and ..
  • home and ~

2.3 Using Directories and Listing Files (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Navigation of home and system directories and listing files in various locations.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files, directories
  • Hidden files and directories
  • Home directories
  • Absolute and relative paths

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Common options for ls
  • Recursive listings
  • cd
  • . and ..
  • home and ~

2.4 Creating, Moving and Deleting Files

Weight 2
Description Create, move and delete files and directories under the home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files and directories
  • Case sensitivity
  • Simple globbing and quoting

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • mv, cp, rm, touch
  • mkdir, rmdir

2.4 Creating, Moving and Deleting Files (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Create, move and delete files and directories under the home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files and directories
  • Case sensitivity
  • Simple globbing

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • mv, cp, rm, touch
  • mkdir, rmdir

Topic 3: The Power of the Command Line (weight: 9)

3.1 Archiving Files on the Command Line

Weight 2
Description Archiving files in the user home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files, directories
  • Archives, compression

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • tar
  • Common tar options
  • gzip, bzip2
  • zip, unzip

3.2 Searching and Extracting Data from Files

Weight 3
Description Search and extract data from files in the home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Command line pipes
  • I/O re-direction
  • Basic Regular Expressions using ., [ ], *, and ?

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • grep
  • less
  • cat, head, tail
  • sort
  • cut
  • wc

3.3 Turning Commands into a Script

Weight 4
Description Turning repetitive commands into simple scripts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic shell scripting
  • Awareness of common text editors

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • #! (shebang)
  • /bin/bash
  • Variables
  • Arguments
  • for loops
  • echo
  • Exit status

Topic 3: The Power of the Command Line

3.1 Archiving Files on the Command Line (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Archiving files in the user home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Files, directories
  • Archives, compression

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • tar
  • Common tar options
  • gzip, bzip2, xz
  • zip, unzip

3.2 Searching and Extracting Data from Files (weight: 3)

Weight 3
Description Search and extract data from files in the home directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Command line pipes
  • I/O redirection
  • Basic Regular Expressions using ., [ ], *, and ?

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • grep
  • less
  • cat, head, tail
  • sort
  • cut
  • wc

3.3 Turning Commands into a Script (weight: 4)

Weight 4
Description Turning repetitive commands into simple scripts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic shell scripting
  • Awareness of common text editors (vi and nano)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • #! (shebang)
  • /bin/bash
  • Variables
  • Arguments
  • for loops
  • echo
  • Exit status

Topic 4: The Linux Operating System (weight: 8)

4.1 Choosing an Operating System

Weight 1
Description Knowledge of major operating systems and Linux distributions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Windows, Mac, Linux differences
  • Distribution life cycle management

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • GUI versus command line, desktop configuration
  • Maintenance cycles, Beta and Stable

4.2 Understanding Computer Hardware

Weight 2
Description Familiarity with the components that go into building desktop and server computers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Hardware

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Motherboards, processors, power supplies, optical drives, peripherals
  • Hard drives and partitions, /dev/sd*
  • Drivers

4.3 Where Data is Stored

Weight 3
Description Where various types of information are stored on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Programs and configuration, packages and package databases
  • Processes, memory addresses, system messaging and logging

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ps, top, free
  • syslog, dmesg
  • /etc/, /var/log/
  • /boot/, /proc/, /dev/, /sys/

4.4 Your Computer on the Network

Weight 2
Description Querying vital networking configuration and determining the basic requirements for a computer on a Local Area Network (LAN).

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Internet, network, routers
  • Querying DNS client configuration
  • Querying Network configuration

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • route, ip route show
  • ifconfig, ip addr show
  • netstat, ip route show
  • /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • ping
  • host

Topic 4: The Linux Operating System

4.1 Choosing an Operating System (weight: 1)

Weight 1
Description Knowledge of major operating systems and Linux distributions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Differences between Windows, OS X and Linux
  • Distribution life cycle management

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • GUI versus command line, desktop configuration
  • Maintenance cycles, beta and stable

4.2 Understanding Computer Hardware (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Familiarity with the components that go into building desktop and server computers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Hardware

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Motherboards, processors, power supplies, optical drives, peripherals
  • Hard drives, solid state disks and partitions, /dev/sd*
  • Drivers

4.3 Where Data is Stored (weight: 3)

Weight 3
Description Where various types of information are stored on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Programs and configuration
  • Processes
  • Memory addresses
  • System messaging
  • Logging

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ps, top, free
  • syslog, dmesg
  • /etc/, /var/log/
  • /boot/, /proc/, /dev/, /sys/

4.4 Your Computer on the Network (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Querying vital networking configuration and determining the basic requirements for a computer on a Local Area Network (LAN).

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Internet, network, routers
  • Querying DNS client configuration
  • Querying network configuration

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • route, ip route show
  • ifconfig, ip addr show
  • netstat, ss
  • /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • ping
  • host

Topic 5: Security and File Permissions (weight: 7)

5.1 Basic Security and Identifying User Types

Weight 2
Description Various types of users on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Root and Standard Users
  • System users

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/passwd, /etc/group
  • id, who, w
  • sudo, su

5.2 Creating Users and Groups

Weight 2
Description Creating users and groups on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • User and group commands
  • User IDs

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group, /etc/skel/
  • id, last
  • useradd, groupadd
  • passwd

5.3 Managing File Permissions and Ownership

Weight 2
Description Understanding and manipulating file permissions and ownership settings.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • File/directory permissions and owners

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ls -l, ls -a
  • chmod, chown

5.4 Special Directories and Files

Weight 1
Description Special directories and files on a Linux system including special permissions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Using temporary files and directories
  • Symbolic links

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /tmp/, /var/tmp/ and Sticky Bit
  • ls -d
  • ln -s

Topic 5: Security and File Permissions

5.1 Basic Security and Identifying User Types (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Various types of users on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Root and standard users
  • System users

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group
  • id, last, who, w
  • sudo, su

5.2 Creating Users and Groups (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Creating users and groups on a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • User and group commands
  • User IDs

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group, /etc/skel/
  • useradd, groupadd
  • passwd

5.3 Managing File Permissions and Ownership (weight: 2)

Weight 2
Description Understanding and manipulating file permissions and ownership settings.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • File and directory permissions and ownership

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ls -l, ls -a
  • chmod, chown

5.4 Special Directories and Files (weight: 1)

Weight 1
Description Special directories and files on a Linux system including special permissions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Using temporary files and directories
  • Symbolic links

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /tmp/, /var/tmp/ and Sticky Bit
  • ls -d
  • ln -s